Reference material that contributed to the et al. installations simultaneous invalidations 1-2 exploring the nature of paranormal electrical conductance and ‘psychic fluids’ or ‘ectoplasmic materialisations’. Refer also to; et al. simultaneous invalidations – second attempt 2000-11, and et al. e-p notes a tabloid publication in conjunction with simultaneous invalidation- second attempt, Auckland Art Gallery, Toi o Tamaki 2011.
Many investigators in the past have observed paranormal electrical conductance (Rene Sudre’s Treatise on Parapsychology, contains a chapter on ‘Psychic Fluid’ which summarizes much of the historical matter). The phenomenon was evidently regarded as a mediumistic accomplishment. Eusapia Palladino, for example, could discharge an electroscope by extending her fingers towards it. Other psychic subjects could apparently close electrical circuits containing a battery source of a few volts and even obtained currents up to o.6 ampere. Such effects were almost invariably explained as due to ‘psychic fluids’ or ‘ectoplasmic’ materializations. The paranormal agencies involved were given names such as ‘N-rays’ (Blondlot), or ‘Y-rays’ -(Yourievitch), or ‘Rigid-rays’ (Ochorowics) also W. J. Crawford’s ‘rods’ (3).
Progress in such researches seems to have come to a halt in the 1930’s with the virtual extinction of ‘physical’ mediums, but now that at least weak displays of PK can be induced by sitter-groups without any recognized medium, it seems possible that progress could be made by further experiments. The invariable rule with regard to these psychic structures is that they are as simple as possible consistent with the carrying out of phenomena. They can be divided into two distinct classes:
(1) structures which do not touch the floor of the seance room (at any rate, beyond the immediate vicinity of the medium’s feet) during action upon the experimental table; and (2) structures which touch the floor somewhere.
W.J. Crawford – The psychic structures at the Goligher Circle, 1920.
Further reference materials can be found on this link JOURNAL of the Society for Psychical Research / VOLUME 48 No. 764 June 1975 / PARANORMAL ELECTRICAL CONDUCTANCE PHENOMENA (downloadable PDF)